### Mathematics Lab Manual Class XII | 14 Activities

Mathematics Lab Manual Class XII 14 lab activities for class 12 with complete observation Tables strictly according to the CBSE syllabus also very useful & helpful for the students and teachers. General instructions All these activities are strictly according to the CBSE syllabus. Students need to complete atleast 12 activity from the list of 14 activities. Students can make their own selection.

### Lesson Plan Math Class 8 | Statistics and Probability

E- LESSON PLAN   SUBJECT MATHEMATICS    CLASS- 8

Lesson Plan for CBSE mathematics class 8 statistics and probability, Step by step teaching strategy for mathematics teachers. Perfect lesson plan which makes the teaching learning process perfect

## E-LESSON PLAN MATHEMATICSCLASS-VIIICHAPTER - 15 STATISTICS & PROBABILITY

 NAME OF THE TEACHER DINESH KUMAR CLASS VIII CHAPTER 15 SUBJECT MATHEMATICS TOPIC STATISTICS & PROBABILITY DURATION : 7 Class Meetings

PREREQUISITE KNOWLEDGE FOR THIS LESSON PLAN

Students should have a strong grasp of basic arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
Students should be familiar with reading and interpreting different types of graphs, such as bar graphs, line graphs, and pie charts. This understanding will help them make sense of the visual representations used in statistics.
A solid understanding of fractions and decimals is important for calculating probabilities.

MATERIALS REQUIRED

Whiteboard and markers, Chart paper or projector, Graphing paper, Dice, Coin, Worksheets with data sets for practice

LEARNING OBJECTIVE:

Students will be able to

understand the basics of statistics and probability, including data collection, representation, measures of central tendency, and simple probability concepts.

understand the methods of finding the mean, mode and median.

understand the bar graph, histogram and pie chart for the given data.

find the method of finding the probabilities related to the coin, die and playing cards.

LEARNING OUTCOMES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

Define the terms "statistics" and "probability" and explain their significance.

Understand the various methods of data collection, including surveys, experiments, and observations.

Represent data using tables, bar graphs, and line graphs appropriately.

Students will be able to calculate mean, median, and mode for given data sets.

Define probability as the likelihood of an event occurring.

Distinguish between equally likely and unequal outcomes.

Calculate simple probabilities using the formula:

$\large \bg{black} Probability(P)=\frac{No.\;of\;favourable\;outcomes}{Possible\;outcomes}$

Demonstrate an understanding of probability by using examples of coin tosses and dice rolls.

Students will understand that probabilities range between 0 (impossible event) and 1 (certain event).

Apply basic probability concepts to analyze real-world situations involving chance events.

RESOURCES

NCERT Text Book,

A Text Book of DAV Board

Resource Material : Worksheets , E-content, Basics and formulas from (cbsemathematics.com)

DEFINE KEY TERMS:

Explain the term like: data set, mean, median, mode, range, and frequency, class interval, class size, class mark etc.

Experiment: An action with uncertain results.

Outcome: A possible result of an experiment.

Sample space: The set of all possible outcomes.

Event: A specific outcome or set of outcomes.

Use coin toss and dice roll examples to illustrate these terms and concepts.

ACTIVITY: 1

Provide a data set and guide the class through calculating the mean, median, and mode together.

ACTIVITY: 2

Roll a dice and toss a coin to demonstrate and calculate simple probabilities.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES : 3 (IF TIME PERMITS)

Have students create their own survey questions and collect data from classmates.

Explore more complex probability problems involving multiple events.

PRESENTATION OF LESSON PLAN
PART-1 STATISTICS

Begin by asking students if they have ever heard the terms "statistics" and "probability." Encourage them to share their understanding of these terms.

Data Collection and Representation:

Explain that statistics involves collecting, organizing, and interpreting data to make informed decisions.

Discuss different ways data can be collected: surveys, experiments, observations.

Introduce the types of data: categorical (qualitative) and numerical (quantitative).

Show examples of different ways data can be represented as frequency distribution tables, bar graphs, line graphs and by pie chart.

Measures of Central Tendency:

Introduce measures of central tendency : mean, median, and mode.

Explain how to calculate each measure using a simple data set.

Mean: The average of a set of numbers. Mean can be calculated by using the formula:

$\large \bg{black}Mean=\frac{Sum\;of\;all\;observations}{Number\;of\;observations}$

Median: The middle value in an ordered data set.

Write the observations in accending order and count the observations let it is n.

If observations(n) are odd then

$\large \bg{black}Median=\left(\frac{n+1}{2}\right)^{th}\:observation$

If observations (n) are even then

$\large \bg{black}Median=\frac{1}{2}\left[\left(\frac{n}{2}\right)^{th}+\left(\frac{n+1}{2}\right)^{th}\right]\;observations$

Mode: The value that appears most frequently.

Most frequent observation is called mode

Work through examples of calculating mean, median, and mode using the data set from earlier.

Discuss scenarios where each measure might be more appropriate to use.

PART 2 - PROBABILITY:

INTRODUCTION OF PROBABILITY
Define probability as the likelihood of an event occurring.

Explain the concept of equally likely outcomes and use a coin and dice as examples.

SIMPLE PROBABILITY:

Discuss how to calculate probability using the formula: Probability (P) =

Number of favourable outcomes / Total number of possible outcomes.

Work through examples using dice, coins, or colored marbles to calculate probabilities.

Emphasize that probabilities are always between 0 and 1, where 0 means impossible and 1 means certain.

PRACTICE EXERCISE:
Distribute worksheets with data sets and probability problems. Students work individually or in pairs to solve the problems.

CONCLUSION:
Recap the main concepts covered in the lesson - data collection, representation, measures of central tendency, and basic probability.
Summarize key terms and concepts discussed.
Encourage students to explore real-life situations where statistics and probability are applied.

HOMEWORK:
Assign exercises from the textbook or additional problems related to statistics and probability for further practice.

ASSESSMENT:
Review students' completed worksheets to assess their understanding.
Ask questions to individual students to check their comprehension of the concepts taught.
Formatively assess students during class activities and discussions.
Use a short quiz or exit ticket at the end of the lesson to assess their understanding.