### Common Errors in Secondary Mathematics

Common Errors Committed  by the  Students  in Secondary Mathematics   Errors  that students often make in doing secondary mathematics  during their practice and during the examinations  and their remedial measures are well explained here stp by step.  Some Common Errors in Mathematics

### Polynomials basic concepts-cbse mathematics

Polynomial Chapter 2
Different types of polynomials, degree of polynomials, relationship between zeroes and coefficients of quadratic and cubic polynomials, pair of linear equations in two variables, methods of solving pair of linear equations in two variables.

## COMMON TOPICS OF IX & X STANDARD

Polynomial:- An algebraic expression in which the exponent of the variable is a whole number is called  a polynomial.
Example : 4x4 - 3x3 + 4x2 - 5x + 2
All exponents of the variable are whole number, so it is a polynomial
Highest exponent = 4,
Degree = 4
Coefficient of x4 = 4,   Coefficient of x3 = - 3
Coefficient of x2 = 4,   Coefficient of x = - 5
Constant Term = 2

## Types of polynomial On the basis of terms:-

Monomial:- Polynomial having one term. Eg.  4x2
Binomial:-   Polynomial having two terms. Eg.   4x2 + 6x
Trinomial:- Polynomial having three terms. Eg.   4x2 + 6x + 5
Quadrinomial:-Polynomial having four terms. Eg.   4x3 + 6x2 + 5x + 2

Degree of a Polynomial:
In a polynomial highest exponent of the variable is called its degree.
Example :
Let P(x)=
2x4 - 3x3 + 4x2 - 2x + 1 is any polynomial
Highest exponent of the variable = 4
So its degree = 4

## Types of polynomial  On the basis of degree:-

Constant Polynomial:-
A polynomial of degree zero is called constant polynomial
For Example:-  3, 5
3 can be written as 3x0 ,
Here exponent (power) of x is zero, so its degree is "0"
Linear Polynomial:-
Polynomial of degree one is called linear polynomial.
For Example:- P(x)=  ax + b
Polynomial of degree two  is called Quadratic polynomial.
For Example:-  P(x)= ax2 + bx + c
Cubic Polynomial:-
Polynomial of degree three  is called cubic polynomial.
For Example:- P(x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d
Polynomial of degree four  is called linear polynomial.
For Example:- P(x) = ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e
Zero polynomial:-
A polynomial with coefficient zero is called zero polynomial.
Zero polynomial can be written as: 0 = 0x2 or 0 = 0x5 , 0 = 0x10
It means the degree of a zero polynomial is not fixed. So we can say the degree of a zero polynomial is not defined.

Note:- Degree of zero polynomial is not defined.

Zeroes of polynomial:-
Solutions of a polynomial are called its zeroes.
Values of x for which the given polynomial become zero are called the zeroes of the polynomial.

Note:- Number of zeroes of a polynomial is equal to the degree of that polynomial.

For Example:- A linear polynomial has one zero,  Quadratic polynomial has two zeroes, Cubic polynomial has three zeroes  and so on.

Graphically:
No. of zeroes of a polynomial = No. of times the graph of that polynomial intersect the x-axis.
Above graph intersect the x-axis at three points so this polynomial have three zeroes.

Above graph intersect the x-axis at three points so this polynomial have three zeroes.

## Graph of a Quadratic Polynomial

Graph of a quadratic polynomial is a parabola, which is either upward parabola or downward parabola.
Upward parabola: Graph of a quadratic polynomial of the type P(x)= ax2 + bx + c is called upward parabola. because here the coefficient of x2 is positive.

Downward parabola: Graph of a quadratic polynomial of the type P(x)= - ax2 + bx + c is called downward parabola. because here the coefficient of x2 is negative.

 Quadratic Polynomial Quadratic Equation Quadratic Polynomial can be written as: P(x) = ax2 + bx + c Quadratic Equation can be written as :-  ax2 + bx + c = 0 Solution of quadratic polynomials are called its zeroes. Solution of quadratic equations are called its roots.

Remainder Theorem
If any polynomial P(x) is divided by any polynomial x + 5 (say), then P(- 5) becomes the remainder.
Factor Theorem
If any polynomial P(x) is divided by any polynomial x + 5 (say), and  P(- 5) becomes = 0, then x + 5 is called the factor of P(x)

## Operations on Polynomials

Example:

Add: 2x4 + 3x2 - 4x + 5 and 3x4 - 5x3 + 8x – 7

In place of and  use ‘+’ sign we get

(2x+ 3x2 - 4x + 5) + (3x4 - 5x3 + 8x – 7)

Collect the like terms with same degree

(2x4 + 3x4) + (- 5x3) + (3x2) + (- 4x +8x ) + (5 – 7)

5 x4 - 5x3 + 3x2 + 4x + (-2)

5 x4 - 5x3 + 3x2 + 4x - 2

Subtraction of two polynomials

Example: Subtract :  3x2 + 4x from 5x3 + 2x2 – 1

First write the polynomial after from then ‘_’ sign and then first polynomial

(5x3 + 2x2 – 1) – (3x2 + 4x )

Open the brackets and change the sign of the polynomial which is after the negative sign

5x3 + 2x2 – 1 - 3x2 - 4x

Now collect the like terms and apply the operation according to the sign

5x3 + (2x2 - 3x2) – 4x – 1

5x3 + (- x2) – 4x – 1

5x3 + - x2 – 4x – 1

Multiplication of two polynomials

Example : Multiply  (2x + 3)(7x - 4)

2x(7x - 4) + 3(7x - 4)

14 x2 – 8x + 21x -12

14 x2 + 13x -12

## Relationship between zeroes and coefficients of a quadratic polynomial:-

Quadratic polynomial is given by    P(x) = ax2 + bx + c
If α and β are the zeroes of quadratic polynomial then

Relationship between zeroes and coefficients of a Cubic polynomial:-
Cubic polynomial is given by     P(x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0
If α, β and 𝜸 are the zeroes of cubic polynomial then
$Sum \: of\: zeroes\: (\alpha +\beta+\gamma )=\frac{-\left ( coefficient\:of\:x^{2}\right )}{coefficient\: of\: x^{3}}=\frac{-b}{a}$
$Sum\; of\; Product\; of\; zeroes\; taken\; two \: at\: a\: time\:(\alpha \beta+\beta \gamma +\gamma \alpha )=\frac{coefficient\: of\: x}{coefficient \: of\: x^{3}} =\frac{c}{a}$
$Product \: of\: zeroes\: (\alpha \beta\gamma )=\frac{constantt\: term}{coefficient \: of\: x^{3}} =\frac{-d}{a}$
Division Algorithm:-

Dividend = Divisor x Quotient + Remainder  or
p(x) = g(x) x q(x) + r(x)

Polynomials basic concepts-cbse mathematics

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